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Aktif Makale Separation Of Powers

Yazan : Yasemin Güllüoğlu [Yazarla İletişim]
AVUKAT ( LLM -still PHD)


Separation of powers is a political doctrine originating from the United States Constitution, according to which the legislative, executive, and judicial branches of the United States government are kept distinct in order to prevent abuse of power. This U.S. form of separation of powers is associated with a system of checks and balances[1].

Understanding that a government's role is to protect individual rights, but acknowledging that governments have historically been the major violators of these rights, a number of measures have been derived to reduce this likelihood. The concept of Separation of Powers is one such measure.

The premise behind the Separation of Powers is that when a single person or group has a large amount of power, they can become dangerous to citizens. The Separation of Power is a method of removing the amount of power in any group's hands, making it more difficult to abuse.

The US government has a partial Separation of Powers. It distinguishes between three groups. The Executive, the Legislative, and the Judicial. They are distinguished by the kind of power they wield. The Legislative branch has the ability to enact laws. The Executive branch has the ability to see those laws enforced. The Judicial branch has the ability to decide the guilt of a party, allowing punishment[2].


Separation of powers is not absolute; it is instead qualified by the doctrine of checks and balances. James Madison wrote that the three branches "should not be so far separated as to have no constitutional control over each other." The system of checks and balances is designed to allow each branch to restrain abuse by another branch.


If a single group shared all three powers, they would have unlimited power. They could specify any law, arresting the 'criminal', and then decide that they are guilty. Through the Separation of Powers, though, no group can have more than one of these powers. Only through the combined use of all three can the government use force. By requiring the consent of all three branches, it increases the likelihood that the government will not initiate violent force.

There are many different ways to separate the powers of a government. The US, for instance, requires those that declare war to be different from those that execute the war. Only by combining the two can a war be declared. Also, the Legislative branch is further broken into two, each with separate responsibilities and powers. By any number of possible separations, a government can be made safer for its citizens[3].







If we look at the legislative, executive and judicial bodies in general;

Legislative:

Writes and enacts laws , Enacts taxes, authorizes borrowing, and sets the budget , Has sole power to declare war , May start investigations, especially against the executive branch , The Senate considers presidential appointments of judges and executive department heads , The Senate ratifies treaties , The House of Representatives may impeach, and the Senate may, remove, executive and judicial officers[4].

Executive:

May veto laws , May not refuse to spend money allocated for certain purposes , Wages war at the direction of Congress (Congress makes the rules for the military), Makes decrees or declarations (for example, declaring a state of emergency) and promulgates lawful regulations and executive orders , Appoints judges and executive department heads ,Has power to grant pardons to convicted persons, except in cases of impeachment[5].

Judicial:


Determines which laws Congress intended to apply to any given case , Determines whether a law is unconstitutional , Determines how Congress meant the law to apply to disputes , Determines how a law acts to determine the disposition of prisoners , Determines how a law acts to compel testimony and the production of evidence , Determines how laws should be interpreted to assure uniform policies in a top-down fashion via the appeals process, but gives discretion in individual cases to low-level judges. (The amount of discretion depends upon the standard of review, determined by the type of case in question.) , Polices its own members , Judges remain subject to impeachment and removal by Congress[6].



Atorney
Yasemin GULLUOGLU
(L.L.M-still PHD)




[1]http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Separation_of_powers_under_the_United_States_Const itution (Last updated on 01.17.2011)

[2]http://www.importanceofphilosophy.com/Politics_SeparationPower.html (Last updated on 01.17.2011)

[3]http://www.importanceofphilosophy.com/Politics_SeparationPower.html (Last updated on 01.17.2011)

[4]http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Separation_of_powers_under_the_United_States_Const itution (Last updated on 01.17.2011)

[5]http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Separation_of_powers_under_the_United_States_Const itution (Last updated on 01.17.2011)

[6]http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Separation_of_powers_under_the_United_States_Const itution (Last updated on 01.17.2011)



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"Separation Of Powers" başlıklı makalenin tüm hakları yazarı Yasemin Güllüoğlu'e aittir ve makale, yazarı tarafından Türk Hukuk Sitesi (http://www.turkhukuksitesi.com) kütüphanesinde yayınlanmıştır.

Bu ibare eklenmek şartıyla, makaleden Fikir ve Sanat Eserleri Kanununa uygun kısa alıntılar yapılabilir, ancak yazarının izni olmaksızın makalenin tamamı başka bir mecraya kopyalanamaz veya başka yerde yayınlanamaz.


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