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Aktif Makale The Supreme Court

Yazan : Yasemin Güllüoğlu [Yazarla İletişim]
AVUKAT ( LLM -still PHD)


If we want to talk about the supreme court in general; The Supreme Court of the United States is the highest judicial body in the United States, and leads the federal judiciary. It consists of the Chief Justice of the United States and eight Associate Justices, who are nominated by the President and confirmed with the "advice and consent" (majority vote) of the Senate. Once appointed, justices effectively have life tenure, serving "during good Behaviour", which terminates only upon death, resignation, retirement, or conviction on impeachment. The Court meets in Washington, D.C. in the United States Supreme Court Building. The Supreme Court is primarily an appellate court, but it has original jurisdiction over a small range of cases. The Supreme Court is sometimes informally referred to as the High Court or by the acronym SCOTUS[1].

The United States Supreme Court consists of the Chief Justice of the United States and eight associate justices. At its discretion, and within certain guidelines established by Congress, the Supreme Court each year hears a limited number of the cases it is asked to decide. Those cases may begin in the federal or state courts, and they usually involve important questions about the Constitution or federal law.

The history of the Supreme Court of the United States of America, the Court was primarily composed of white male Protestants. The first Roman Catholic appointed to the Court was Roger Taney in 1836, with the second (Edward Douglass White) appointed in 1898. Prior to the 20th century and the civil rights movement, concerns about diversity in government were mainly geographic, to represent all regions of the country, as opposed to ethnic, religious, or gender diversity. The 20th century saw the first appointment of a Jewish justice (Louis Brandeis, 1916), the first two appointments of African Americans (Thurgood Marshall, 1967; and his successor Clarence Thomas, 1991), and the first appointment of a woman (Sandra Day O'Connor, 1981), while the 21st century saw the appointment of the first Latino justice (Sonia Sotomayor, 2009). O'Connor, whose appointment fulfilled Ronald Reagan's campaign promise to place a woman on the Court, was later joined by Ruth Bader Ginsburg, appointed by Bill Clinton in 1993. After O'Connor's retirement in 2006, Ginsburg was joined by Sotomayor, named to the Court by Barack Obama; a year later, Obama also appointed Elena Kagan. All justices were Caucasians of European heritage until the 1967 appointment of Marshall.

In terms of religion, most justices have been Protestants, including thirty-five Episcopalians, nineteen Presbyterians, ten Unitarians, five Methodists, and three Baptists. Following the retirement of Justice John Paul Stevens, the Court is without a Protestant for the first time in its history.

The Court currently consists of six males and three females; one African American and eight Caucasians (one of whom is Latino); six Roman Catholics and three Jews. As of January 12, 2011, the average age of the justices is 65 years, 1 month, and the average service length of the justices is 12 years, 5 months.

The United State Supreme Court was created by Article III of the United State Constitution as the third branch of the federal govermant[2].
The Supreme Court has two types of jurisdiction: original jurisdiction, which allows the Court to act as a trial court, and appellate jurisdiction, which allows the Court to review the decision of lower fedaral or state court.

The names of the judges in the supreme court said; Sonia Sotomayor, Stephen G. Breyer, Samuel A. Alito, Elena Kagan, Clarence Thomas, Antonin Scalia, Chief Justice John G. Roberts, Anthony Kennedy, and Ruth Bader Ginsburg

United States Supreme Court Building; The Supreme Court first met on February 1, 1790, at the Merchants' Exchange Building in New York City, which then was the national capital. Philadelphia became the capital city later in 1790, and the Court followed Congress and the President there, meeting briefly in Independence Hall, and then from 1791 to 1800 at Old City Hall at 5th and Chestnut Streets[3]. After Washington, D.C. became the capital in 1800, the Court occupied various spaces in the United States Capitol building until 1935, when it moved into its own purpose-built home at One First Street Northeast, Washington, DC. The four-story building was designed by architect Cass Gilbert in a classical style sympathetic to the surrounding buildings of the Capitol complex and Library of Congress, and is clad in marble quarried chiefly in Vermont. The building includes space for the courtroom, justices' chambers, an extensive law library, various meeting spaces, and auxiliary services such as workshop, stores, cafeteria, and a gymnasium. The Supreme Court building is within the ambit of the Architect of the Capitol. However, it maintains its own police force, the Supreme Court Police, separate from the Capitol Police[4].

Supreme court criticized some of the issues. In general we look at, the face comes from the following criticisms. Judicial activism, Federal versus state power, Judicial interference in political disputes, Failing to protect individual rights, Supreme Court has too much power, Courts are poor check on executive power, Not choosing enough cases to review, Secret proceedings, Creating a culture of legal intimidation, Lifetime tenure




Atorney
Yasemin GULLUOGLU
(L.L.M-still PHD)

[1]http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Supreme_Court_of_the_United_States, (Last updated on 01.10.2011)

[2] Hartman Gary, Mersky M. Roy, Tate L. Cindy, Landmark Supreme Court Cases, 2003

[3]http://www.supremecourt.gov/ (Last updated on 01.10.2011)

[4]http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Supreme_Court_of_the_United_States, (Last updated on 01.10.2011)
Bu makaleden kısa alıntı yapmak için alıntı yapılan yazıya aşağıdaki ibare eklenmelidir :

"The Supreme Court" başlıklı makalenin tüm hakları yazarı Yasemin Güllüoğlu'e aittir ve makale, yazarı tarafından Türk Hukuk Sitesi (http://www.turkhukuksitesi.com) kütüphanesinde yayınlanmıştır.

Bu ibare eklenmek şartıyla, makaleden Fikir ve Sanat Eserleri Kanununa uygun kısa alıntılar yapılabilir, ancak yazarının izni olmaksızın makalenin tamamı başka bir mecraya kopyalanamaz veya başka yerde yayınlanamaz.


[Yazıcıya Gönderin] [Bilgisayarınıza İndirin][Arkadaşa Gönderin] [Yazarla İletişim]
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13-02-2011 - 21:14
(3168 gün önce)
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